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文章原始标题:Why is China so modern while India is lagging behind?

内容简介:一个非常愤怒的印度人会给你一个非常政治不正确和充满愤怒的答案。 图上那是北京大兴国际机场。

Sayak Biswas , South Asia watcher
Brace yourself for a very politically incorrect and a highly angry answer from a very angry Indian.
This is Beijing Daxing International Airport
which apparently took exactly 5 years to get completed. It happens to be the largest single-structure airport terminal.
Five years, get it? That’s the exact time for which a government in India under a party or alliance is supposed to run in one term.
Now a curious question my friend.
How much time will it take for India to make an exactly similar airport, assuming the government is very much sincere about the project?
Well, first, it will need land. Since land in India can be got for such a thing only by clearing forests or some sort of vegetation, demolishing old constructions which is of no use, and to buy land from some other source(s) . No problem, this hurdle is easy to overcome
Next is tender for construction. Okay, this is easy too.

Sayak Biswas 、南亚观察家

Now comes commitment. For a government who can construct highways fast, this is something they definitely can do, right?
Now, let’s go back to first point. What if there was a patch of vegetation???
A retinue of fellows claiming to be environmental activists, farmer activists, activists against common sense, will begin a protest on why trees and grasses are being removed.
Next a retinue of film stars whose marriages have a larger carbon footprint than what my family produces in a year and who currently lives outside India, will give us their piece of mind on why hurting grass is bad
Finally some politician trying to sharpen his dividend (doesn’t matter if in opposition or government) will try the best to gain some followers.
Someone will try to take it to hon’ble Supreme Court and try hard to delay this even further.
A project that can get completed in 5 years or less will get completed in 15 years!!!!!!!!
You serious ????

现在让我们回到第一点。 如果那里有一小块植被呢?

You want good trains, but you don’t like high speed train tracks occupying a strip of land in a farm.
You want Made in India phones but have problems with a cellphone factory set in neighbourhood
You want metro trains, but have a problem with a shed occupying a tiny region.
You want uninterrupted electricity, but have problems with a power plant.
You call yourself as anti-corporate, yet work in Amazon
In short, you think yourself as smart, but you are an emotional fool


Every time you behave as an emotional fool, someone in Beijing laughs on a joke, and I guess you can see that joke, at a nearby mirror maybe???
It is 2019 where industries and infrastructure rule the roost, and a country which has more of these will be the one to wield maximum power and the one which would provide the highest standards of living. Badmouthing corporate culture is like hitting your own legs with an axe.
You want India to speed up? The first step is to stop acting as a fricking roadblock. Atleast you can do this much I guess, alongside changing your mindset and priorities. Is that too much to ask?
China thanks to it’s mindset of supporting industralization lifted it’s own poor to middle-class levels, at a speed no other nation managed to do. India on other hand managed to reduce it’s poverty significantly in two decades.

每次你表现得像个情绪化的蠢货时,北京的某个人就会大笑,我想,你或许可以在镜子里看到这个笑话? ? ?
你想让印度加快发展速度?第一步就是停止把自己充当他妈的路障。我想,除了改变你的心态和优先事项之外,至少你可以做到这一点。 难道这要求过分吗?

Two decades. You know what went right two decades ago??? Liberalization of economy. China did that way before India did, and they did it under a non-democratic government. India under democracy managed to do it in 2 decades, slower than China. I think that we can do it faster even without becoming a non-democratic nation, provided that people of India stop behaving like emotional fools. We just need to support more industries and infrastructure.
India expects every man and woman to side with her in the race to progress, not against it. If you are against it, you are part of the problem and not solution.


Mani Duraisamy , Politically Correct
Why is China so modern while India is lagging behind?
I assume the OP is looking for a really, really honest answer here. The reason why I stress ‘really honest’ is because, this answer will be unpalatable to certain people.
China is so modern and India lags behind because, in India we are concerned more about transient things like ‘freedom of speech’, ‘social harmony’ and ‘diversity’ etc…rather than how to aggressively invest in industries for better economic growth.
The reason why I call these things ‘transient’ is because these things only consume more time in pointless debates.
In India, we have become so used to this ‘freedom’ of everything, that the government cannot erect a factory or a nuclear power plant, without having to face protests of some kind!.

Mani Duraisamy 、政治正确
我想OP是在寻找一个非常,非常诚实的答案。 我之所以强调“非常诚实”是因为,这个答案对于某些人来说是难以接受的。

If a major city corporation cannot easily build even a metro rail shed, how can a country build factories and powerplants at a massive scale to provide employment?. Because thats what China did to become what it is today!.
We hear phrases like ‘suit-boot sarkar’, ‘Ambani agent’, ‘greedy corporates’ when someone says we must support industries for jobs. Chinese leaders have no qualms about wearing suits and shiny boots. Ironically, all these tweets and protests come from employees of ‘greedy IT corporate’ employees.
On one hand- we are worried that automobile sector is losing jobs. But on the other hand we protest against setting up an automobile plant because ‘it takes away the poor farmer’s land’. Which part of this hypocrisy do we Indians not get?.
Repeat after me- large scale factories and powerplants are the ONLY way India can catch up with China.

一方面,我们担心正在失去汽车行业的工作。 但是另一方面,我们又反对建立汽车工厂,因为这会夺走穷苦农民的土地。 我们印度人到底明不明白什么是虚伪?

The age of Agriculture is gone. Importing food is becoming easier rather than relying upon poor monsoons. IT companies are having mass layoffs and mundane jobs are gonna be taken over by robots. Unskilled labor can be absorbed ONLY by factories
The day when we Indians stop talking of ‘Hindu intolerance’, ‘Hindi imposition’ , ‘democracy in danger’ and start talking about how to invest in industries is the day when we will start overtaking China.


Subodh Mathur , Adjunct Professor of Economics at Johns Hopkins SAIS (2019-present)
I am glad that you asked this question. Because I want Indians to focus on China. These days, my motto is:
Wake up, wake up, wake. China, not Pakistan. China, not Pakistan. China, not Pakistan.
In simple terms, India is lagging behind for two reasons. One, India has not had the high economic growth rates that China had. Second, India is focused too much on Pakistan - beating Pakistan is enough. Sadly, no.
There is no doubt that China’s economic data are sometimes fudged. But, there are similar charges against India. So, let’s ignore this fudging. The reality is that China is far ahead of India in so many ways. Essentially, China is now number 2 to the US.
China has lent $ 1 trillion to the US. Lent. That’s not a fake number. That’s what the US government reports. India’s total foreign exchange is about $ 400 billion. And, China is pouring billions of dollars into India’s neighbor countries and in Africa. So, don’t doubt it - China is way ahead of India.

Subodh Mathur ,美国约翰霍普金斯大学,国际会计学院经济学兼职教授(2019年至今)
我很高兴你问了这个问题。 因为我希望印度人开始关注中国。如今,我的座右铭是:“醒醒,快醒醒,关注中国,而不是巴基斯坦。关注中国,而不是巴基斯坦。关注中国,而不是巴基斯坦。(阿煌注:不是我偷懒,他重复了三遍...)”
简而言之,印度落后有两个原因。 第一,印度没有中国那样的经济高增长率。 其次,印度过于关注巴基斯坦,认为击败巴基斯坦就足够了。 但很遗憾,不是。
毫无疑问,中国的经济数据有时是有水分。但是,对印度也有类似的指控。所以,让我们忽略这种胡言乱语。现实是,中国在很多方面都远远领先于印度。实际上,中国现在是第二大经济体,仅次于美国。中国已经借给美国1万亿美元。“借给”,这些数字是真实的。这是美国政府的报告。 印度的外汇总额约为4000亿美元。而且,中国正在向印度的邻国和非洲投入数十亿美元。因此,不要怀疑这一点——中国遥遥领先于印度。

But, it need not be this way for ever. India cannot catch up with China in a few years. Sorry. Mr. Modi talks of India as a $ 5 trillion economy by 2024. China is already far ahead of that, and still growing.
So, we need to think of decades, not years, to catch up with China. In simple terms, India needs to hit 10% (or more) real (in every sense) annual GDP growth for years to come.And, then check back after 10 years.

因此,我们需要考虑的是几十年以后,而不是几年以后,才能赶上中国。简而言之,印度需要在未来几年内实现10% (或更高)的实际GDP年增长率。然后,10年后再回来看看。

Rahul Chauhan, IT Consultant, Student of Bharatiya History
Mumbai, the financial capital of Bharat is getting much needed Metro for helping millions of commuters.
For the same, Metro carriage shed is to be built in Aarey. For this 2500 hundred trees need to be cut, out of which 500 were to be transplanted from roots.
In the Aarey forest area,
* There is a residential colony which was made after cutting of trees
* There is film city, Royal Palm golf course and luxury residential area build by cutting of trees
* But when Metro shed is to be built
* Mumbai Metro got the project cleared from courts, green bodies, government and so one but these malicious protests delayed the project by months, the money lost was Rs 5 crore daily. Mumbai Metro is also needed to
* 1. Save lives of innocent commuters
* 2. Reduce congestion on roads of Mumbai
* 3. Reduce carbon emissions of transport from the city
Can this kind of malicious and brainless actions hamper development in China?
I hope you got the answer.

Rahul Chauhan,资讯科技顾问,印度历史系学生
在 Aarey 的森林地区:
* 有一个居民区,是在砍伐树木后建造的
* 有电影城、皇家棕榈高尔夫球场和采伐树木后兴建的豪华住宅区
* 但地铁站何时建成?
* 孟买地铁从法院、环保团体、政府等等那里得到了清理项目的许可,但是这些恶意的抗议把项目延误了几个月,每天损失500万卢比。孟买地铁也需要:
* 1. 拯救无辜乘客的生命
* 2. 减少孟买道路的拥堵
* 3. 减少城市交通的碳排放

Rohan Khandelwal
Let me tell you the reason behind that.
When China got it’s independence in 1949, it focused on the development of the most important sector (Manufacturing) out of the 3 major sectors.
2. Manufacturing.
3. Services.
Manufacturing sector forms the backbone of any country’s economy and based on that the other 2 sectors also flourish. The rising manufacturing sector of china boosted it’s exports and tremendously added to it’s Forex reserves leading to it’s rise as one of the greatest powers of the world.
When India got it’s independence in 1947, our leaders put Agriculture on the forefront from the 1st five year plan itself. Nehru never realised the importance of manufacturing and kept importing things for accelerating the development of the country.
Because of this less emphasis on manufacturing, the innovation culture never developed in India. Services sector is the most dominant sector in India right now but it’s not due to any efforts put in by the Government. It is due to the Outsourcing of work from developed nations to India due to it’s cheap labour! It’s not a thing to be proud of. Agricultural sector is already under much distress which is clearly indicated by increasing suicide of the farmers and their poverty status.

Rohan Khandelwal
1. 农业。
2. 制造业。
3. 服务业。
当印度在1947年获得独立时,我们的领导人从第一个五年计划开始就把农业放在第一位。 尼赫鲁从来没有意识到制造业的重要性,而是继续进口东西来加速国家的发展。
由于对制造业的重视不够,印度的创新文化从未发展起来。 服务业是目前印度最主要的部门,但这不是由于政府的任何努力。这是因为发达国家的廉价劳动力将工作外包给了印度 这不是什么值得骄傲的事。农业部门已经处于很大的困境之中了,农民自杀率的上升及其贫困状况很清楚地表明了这一点。

A part of this lagging behind is also to be attributed to the democracy culture in India which makes acquisition of land difficult. It’s not a problem in China.
A step towards eliminating the above mentioned problem(land acquisition) was also made in 1978 by bringing in the 44th constitutional amendment act which made Right to property a legal right instead of a fundamental right but that only is just not enough.
This is also the reason why “Make in India” failed miserably because when the roots are loose, the tree cannot stand on it’s own.
So all in all, political leaders are shameless and we are blind as hell. Hence, the consequences. Our Governments couldn’t even do justice to the only sector they focused upon-Agriculture.

1978年,为了消除上述问题(土地征用) ,还采取了一个步骤,通过第44次宪法修正案,将财产权作为一项法定权利而不是一项基本权利,但这远远不够的。

Manish Bishoyee , Indian since 1995.
China is modern because that’s how things are supposed to be. The more precise argument to put here is, many countries around the world don’t do much to solve the present day issues. Let me explain this by an example.
Germany is known to be a world famous automobile manufacturer. It has invented the IC engine, which is undoubtedly a unparalleled revolution in the Transportation Sector. Logistics around the globe have improved massively so much so that the living standards in the Gulf countries has skyrocketed within few decades.
But, such a boom comes with its own share of caveats - Not to mention the degrading air quality and the warming climate.
Enter China. While the Western World was immune to such issues, China actively pursued such problems. China is now the biggest supplier of EVs and Battery Packs.

Manish Bishoyee,自1995年以来住在印度。
德国是世界著名的汽车制造国。它发明了内燃机,这无疑是交通运输领域的一次无与伦比的革命。 世界各地的物流大大改善,以至于海湾国家的生活水平在几十年内直线上升。
切换到中国。虽然西方世界对这些问题免疫了,但中国正积极地寻求解决这些问题。 中国现在是电动汽车和电池组的最大供应商。

Likewise, China is ahead than most developed countries because it works on real issues. Coming to India, I don’t think India and China can be put on a same page - There are many differences in our and their cultures. There is a difference in how businesses are done and what models of economy we follow. For example you can buy a flat and rent it out to make some monthly income, which is possible in India but not in China.
Hence, China and India are two different countries - and cannot be compared side by side with each other. Indians value their freedom, while China values prosperity.

因此,中国和印度是两个不同的国家,不能相互比较。 印度重视自由,而中国重视繁荣。

Saivenkat Nanduri , works at Hyundai Motor India Engineering
* Because they work hard rather than spending time asking these kinda questions on quora.
* Because the people in china are not comparing themselves with India. Their competitor is USA. India?? Hell, no!!
* Government can do anything. They can do mega projects within 2–3 years, while we mostly do them forever.
* They create their own version of everything. Their google is Baidu, their tesla is BYD, their whatsapp is wechat, their apple is huawei, their uber is Didi. They are all damn successful companies.
We are always busy comparing ourselves with countries like pakistan, bangladesh etc. India is still in the stage of cleaning their roads, building bathrooms, bringing people out of poverty etc. which are like basic requirements for livelihood.
Most importantly, many of the chinese are atheists and they work while we are busy fighting among ourselves in the name of religion.
These are some of the pics that i have taken during my recent trip to the Shanghai which can be compared to major cities like Newyork and Chicago.

Saivenkat Nanduri 在现代汽车印度工程公司工作
* 因为他们努力工作,而不是花时间在Quora上问这些问题。
* 因为中国人不会拿自己和印度做比较。他们的竞争对手是美国。 印度? 见鬼,不! !
* 政府无所不能。他们可以在2-3年内完成大型项目,而我们大多项目永远在做当中。
他们创造了中国化的一切。 他们的谷歌是百度,他们的特斯拉是比亚迪,他们的whatsapp是微信,他们的苹果是华为,他们的优步是滴滴。这些都是非常成功的公司。

Amit Pandya , Founder & CEO at AKruti Financial Technologies (2014-present)
India got independence from British Raj in 1947, but from the starting, the problem has always been the power and politics. China was also a colony of British. India was ahead from China but we are sleeping giants those who won’t do anything until severe pressure comes. China opened up its economy around in 1978 and become the Global Manufacturer, bringing in the latest technology, state of the art infrastructure. They are only enjoying the fruits of the seeds they sow. But here in India bad politics and corruption is the reason and also the craze of settling in Canada, USA and UK. Even a small work cannot be done without corruption, even the Government is visionless and all the politicians and there businessmen friends only focus on feeling their own pockets, which cannot improve or build the world-class infrastructure we need. Flooding inroads even with a few inches of rain, only propaganda is going on that everything is good. Even when we praise and boast of ourself in democracy we cannot beat socialist China in terms of Growth.

Amit Pandya 阿克鲁蒂金融科技 创始人兼首席执行官(2014年至今)
印度于1947年脱离英国殖民统治获得独立,但从一开始,问题就一直存在于权力和政治之中。 中国也是英国的殖民地。印度曾领先于中国,但我们是沉睡中的巨人,除非面临巨大的压力,否则我们什么都不会做。中国在1978年左右开放经济,成为全球制造商,引进最新的技术和最先进的基础设施。他们只是在享受他们播下种子后结的果实。但在印度,糟糕的政治和腐败是人们移民到加拿大、美国和英国定居的原因和热潮。即使是一件很小的事也离不开腐败,甚至连政府也没有远见,所有的政客和商人朋友只关心自己的口袋,然而这些口袋无法改善或建设我们需要的世界级基础设施。即使只有几英寸的降雨量,也会造成洪水侵袭,只有宣传说印度一切都是好的。即使我们在民主方面夸耀自己,我们也不能在增长方面击败社会主义中国。

India needs to invest in improving the coastal line benefit, we need more transparency through technology which can reduce corruption up to a great level. Bureaucracy fails in taking strong decisions because they lack leadership ability there may be a few exceptions but others are only bound to follow their political masters. Many of the laws are same as when the British were ruling India, we need to change from basics then only something can happen. We can find every type of mafia in India like Water Mafia, Sand Mafia, Land Mafia, which restricts the common man of India to enjoy or have the share of national wealth. The slow legal and justice system, no accountability even at the highest levels demoralizes the honest and hard working community.
Amit Pandya: Amazon.in: Kindle Store To buy our publications.


Nukul Goyal , Trying to survive
The single most appropriate reason is the tight fist rule in China. If the government decides to do something, then there is no one to oppose it. No environmentlist, no human rights, no private parties, in fact, no red tape, nothing. They want land for a project, can acquire without a problem. Need felling of trees, no problem.
In India, Even if the government wants to do something good for the public, there is always someone who goes to court against it and the matters remain stagnant for Years. Look at the Aarey Situation, everybody agrees that there is a great requirement for the metro but a few decide to oppose and the matter got delayed.
Corruption is not that big a factor as there is corruption in China as well but there at least the project get completed within a specified time frame unlike here.
But things are improving now, albeit at a slower pace but at least there is some accountability building up.

Nukul Goyal ,试着生存

Akarsh Rajvanshi , Read books about India and politics of India
Though India has been growing at six per cent annually since the late 1980s, it trails behind China, which has been growing at ten per cent per annum since 1981. The single most important factor explaining this difference is the relatively poor performance of Indian industry. Whereas the share of industry in China's GDP rose from 42 per cent in 1991 to 51 per cent in 2001, it remained virtually stagnant in India. By contrast, services grew rapidly in India, expanding from 42 per cent in 1991 to 48 per cent in 2001. With the information technology sector less than two per cent of the GDP, services growth was largely in the informal sector. Approximately 77 per cent of India's workers live in rural areas. To bring a large chunk of this workforce into the modern sector, India must achieve a much higher growth in the traditional, unskilled-labour-intensive industry. Growth in the information technology sector gives India an extra lever but cannot be the main engine of transformation. Therefore, the right approach is to walk on two legs: traditional labour-intensive industry and the modern IT industry. Both legs need strengthening through further reforms. The paper suggests four specific reforms, three for industry and one for IT, necessary to achieve the transformation to a modern economy.
Source: https://www.researchgate.net/pub...

Akarsh Rajvanshi 阅读有关印度和印度政治的书籍
尽管印度自上世纪80年代末以来每年增长6% ,但仍落后于中国,中国自1981年以来每年增长10% 。解释这种差异的一个最重要的因素是,印度工业相对较差的表现。尽管工业在中国国内生产总值中所占比例从1991年的42%升至2001年的51% ,但在印度,这一比例几乎停滞不前。相比之下,印度的服务业增长迅速,从1991年的42% 增至2001年的48% 。 由于信息技术部门不到国内生产总值的2% ,服务业增长主要集中在非正规部门。 大约77% 的印度工人生活在农村地区。 为了将大量劳动力引入现代化行业,印度必须在传统的、非熟练的劳动密集型行业实现更高的增长。信息技术部门的增长虽然为印度提供了额外的杠杆,但不可能成为转型的主要引擎。因此,正确的途径是,要用两条腿走路:传统的劳动密集型产业和现代的IT产业。两条腿都需要通过进一步的改革来加强。

Karthikeyan M.V , Indian
Strong government policy and free market economy.
I argue that China has a strong government and has one party system and series of successful leaders.
Meanwhile India has Nehru. who introduced licence raj
Licence Raj - Wikipedia

Karthikeyan M.V 、印度人

Christopher Shepard , Consultant at Independent Business (1995-present)
About 25 years ago, China started paying more attention to creating infrastructure, using steel and cement imported from India. They completed the projects in time. Any project in India takes half a century

Christopher Shepard 、 独立企业顾问(1995年至今)
大约25年前,中国开始更加关注基础设施建设,使用从印度进口的钢铁和水泥。 他们按时完成了项目。 在印度,任何项目都需要半个世纪的时间

Albert Thamby , former HSA English at GHSS Erumapetty (2011-2016)
People being hardworking and having civic sense is the main reason of development of any country.

Albert Thamby ,曾就读于 GHSS Erumapetty (2011-2016)

Mahadevan Kv , business consultant (1996-2015)
⁰I wonder why so many Indians have turned out to be China admirers. Looks like they all want to handover India to the CPI (m) so they can catch up with China.
Cherish your freedom while you can. If lost can never be regained.

Mahadevan Kv 、商业顾问(1996-2015)

Orlando OU, electrical engineer
Even though India has more young people than China, however, it doesn’t mean India gets the upper hand against China, the quality is much more important than the quantity. If a large sum of manpower cannot get proper taining or education, it could be a huge burden for society rather than the blessing.Apparently, Chinese young men (mostly the product of “one child policy”)are better educated and trained than India counterpart;
Unlike India, China has unique and nation-wide speaking langue, the Chinese, the speaking maybe differently from one place to another, but the writing is the same, so people in China can communicate with each other easily, while for India, as I know there are dozens of official langues. With the help of monopoly langue and civilization, Chinese soiety’s cohesion much more stronger than India’s.
Militarily speaking, China is much more powerful tha India, since China is able to come up with the state-of -art arsenals indenpendly, such as fourth generation fighter jet, J20, and J31, and early warning airplane, just name a few, while for India, buying advanced gadgets is one thing, the military power is just another thing.
Economically speaking, China is currently at least ten years ahead of India.
India is the so-called the biggest democracy in this planet, while China is called authoritarian country by the western medias, however, the average Chinese don’t care about it. It is not denied that China is much more efficient than india, once China made the decision, the local officials will race against time to get it done, the speed and efficiency are equal important.

Orlando OU, 电气工程师
尽管印度拥有比中国更多的年轻人,但这并不意味着印度对中国占了上风,质量比数量更重要。 如果一大批人力得不到适当的培养或教育,对社会来说可能是一个巨大的负担,而不是福利。显然,中国的年轻人(大多是“独生子女政策”的结果)比印度的年轻人受到更好的教育和培训;
与印度不同,中国有着独特的全国通用语言,中国人的语言可能各地不同,但书写方式是一样的,所以中国人可以很容易地相互交流,而印度,据我所知,有几十种官方语言。 在垄断语言和文明的帮助下,中国社会的凝聚力远远强于印度。