Sthitapragnya Deshpande worked at China
While many claim that it is because India is a democracy, in reality there are a large number of reasons for this. I am an Indian who was born and raised in India, have been visiting China for the past 15 years, and now live and work here.
This has enabled me to see the way China actually works from much closer.
1) Systems of governance and attitudes of government - China has a Chinese communist (with large traces of socialism and capitalism) governance system. This enables (a) the government to immediately sense what people want (b) what people need (c) what is good for people (d) with an extremely high level of local independence to take off projects (e) with exceptionally low levels of bureaucracy.
For example: When building the 3 gorges dam, China was able to do it once 70% of the villagers agreed to the resettlement. The local government worked hard to convince villagers that they would gain from the project and that it was for the betterment of the nation. All the displaced got alternative larger accommodation + jobs immediately - the jobs came before they left their homes. The local government did not have to keep asking Beijing permission for everything.
In India, in every infrastructure project, the opposite is true. In the Narmada Sardar Sarovar project , the government did not try to convince people or deem it necessary to convince people how the 3000 small, 135 medium and 30 major dams being built causing their displacement would help them. To top it, most villagers did not get decent alternative homes, no jobs - in other words they all got ripped off by their own government. As a result, they had to take the assistance of others to put a stop to this exploitation in the form of the "Narmada bachao aandolan".
在印度，每个基础设施项目的情况都恰恰相反。在 Narmada Sardar Sarovar 项目中，政府并没有试图说服人们，也没有认为有必要说服人们，正在建造的3000座小型、135座中型和30座大型水坝导致的流离失所，政府将如何帮助他们。更糟糕的是，大多数村民没有像样的替代住房，没有工作——换句话说，他们都被自己的政府敲诈了。因此，他们不得不借助其他人的帮助，以“ Narmada bachao aandolan”的形式制止这种剥削。
Politicians - Chinese politicians think how they can develop China and make a little money simultaneously. They are also highly answerable to their high command and superiors. Indian politicians think how they can make lots of money at the expense o the country , let the country be damned. they are not answerable to anyone.
2) Humility + Learning for the best - The Chinese repeatedly (even now) acknowledges that it needs to do a lot to develop the nation, and always reiterates that it needs to learn from the best. hence it invites the best in the world to come and build in China - for themselves as well as for Chinese people. Chinese companies in turn learn the craft from the best, and subsequently start to make these products on their own.
for example - the only elevators and escalators you will find in China are Siemens, Schindler and Kone - all made in China. Subsequently the companies that make it with these German companies have now started to make them on their own using the same equipment. Similarly, all cars are made by Chinese companies collaborating with BMW, SAaab, Ford, Nissan, Mazda and Mecedes Benz. They are 100% made in China.
This is the same for clothes, concrete, buildings, high speed rail, land reclamation, watches and clocks, mining, heavy machinery, everything.
The Indian government unfortunately still (despite having the brightest people in the world) behaves like a beggar, begging from ADB and World bank, yet pretending to be the best and hence not learning form the best. As a result, we are still a nation of coolies - albeit doing IT coolie work, while millions go hungry and our farmers find it so bad that they have to commit suicides while the government and people watch uninterestedly
Despite the physical proximity and our common goals, India does not even try to co-operate with China to get a win win solution. Insitead it sucks up to wetern entities who are naturally more interested in themselves.
3) Chinese people are more interested in development, Indians are more interested in infighting, caste issues and preventing other Indians from doing well.Ask any Indian and he / she will testify to this. The government merely mimics the way we people think. and we do not have any good leaders who can take us on the path towards development, keeping these lesser important issues aside for the time being (Modi had this ability, and I had high expectations from him for my country, but unfortunately he has disappointed me)
4) India has still not decided which direction it wants to take - thus it is like a chariot with 8 excellent horsemen and 16 excellent horses - all pulling it in different directions! One set of people want to globalize, the other want sto stay local. One wants Indian companies to progress while the other wants foreign companies to come in and carry out work. ne wants to invest in schools infrastructure and hospitals while the other wants to spend more on arms and ammunition. In the bargain, the Indian citizen gets royally screwed - some know it most either do not or laugh it off as a measure to ensure their own sanity.
5) Chinese peopleChinese people co-operate with each other - in China as well as abroad. They realize that by helping others alone they too will develop and profit. Indians usually try to discourage other Indians - in India and abroad
There is the popular story of Indian crabs - the jar containing them did not have a lid. When the fisherman was asked, he replied,"these are Indian crabs - if one try to escape, the others just pull him back into the jar!"
This is sadly 100% true in India and abroad for Indians. Thus we never achieve our full potential. The few Indians and Indian companies that do well are despite this.
Thus India is bogged down in joblessness, backwardness of infrastructure and hopelessness despite Indian people being among the brightest and most hardworking people I have met in my life, and China forges ahead.
6) India listens too much to what the rest of the world has to say. China does not unnecessarily give western nations excessive importance if it does not benefit Chinese people.
有一则关于印度螃蟹的流行故事——装螃蟹的罐子没有盖子。当有人问渔夫这个问题时，他回答说: “这些是印度螃蟹，如果有一只想逃跑，其他的螃蟹就会把它拉回罐子里! ”
Kevin Limbu studied at Janapriya Multiple Campus, Pokhara
10 reasons Why is the India lagging behind China in terms of economic development
#1. An authoritarian government
"Once committed to a focus on economic growth, some good policy decisions were implemented quickly and efficiently. From the time Deng (Xiaoping) set the direction 25 years ago, it has not been altered by party politics, ideology or leadership changes," says Kenneth J Dewoskin, Senior Consultant, PricewaterhouseCoopers (China).
While India's corporate leaders agree that this could be true, they are emphatic that India's vibrant democracy is the only way for the country to ensure that growth and development reaches all.
"There is chaos in it and sometimes policy decisions tend to be reversed. But ultimately India's democracy is essential for the country's welfare," says Lalita Gupte, Managing Director, ICICI Bank.
#2. High savings rate
“一旦致力于以经济增长为重点，一些好的政策决定就会迅速有效地得到执行。从25年前邓确定方向开始，它就没有受到党派政治、意识形态或领导层的更迭而改变。”中国普华永道高级顾问 肯尼斯·J·德沃斯金 说。
According to Dewoskin who has been involved with China for the last 40 years, China has a high savings rate, which is recycled and concentrates wages paid to workers into four large state banks.
This capital is in turn directed by the leadership, which concentrates this available capital into key projects.
This capital has consistently financed more than 85 per cent of China's infrastructure investment.
#3. Investment in models and showcases
China's leadership has always focused on investment in models and showcases. All this has helped canalize foreign direct investment into the country and helped create local economic development.
For instance, Shenzhen and Zhangjiagang were developed into fantastic models that could help sell not only the region, but also China as a whole to investors.
China created awe-inspiring gateways for visiting foreign investors: the Beijing and Shanghai airports, Pudong Development Zone, and Beijing's Financial Street are just a few examples.
That model has helped many companies who were tentative about China make up their minds about setting up a centre there.
Ganesh Natrajan, CEO of Zensar Technologies recalls how his company was wooed to set up a centre in China.
Zensar was wooed by Zhuhai, a tiny city in South China's Guangdong province. The city's mayor rolled out the red carpet for the company, laying perfect roads, building the software park and putting all the facilities in place even before company officials could visit the city for the first time.
The result was that when Zensar officials made the trip to Zhuhai they were greeted with impressive facilities that convinced them immediately to set up a centre there.
Now when was the last time India pursued any investment so aggressively?
#4. A consistent and thoughtful marketing effort
China has sold itself on a single point: the size of its market.
"Every businessperson of any size anywhere in the world knows what the number 1.3 billion means: China's big market. How many know the population of India? Chinese leaders discarded their Mao suits immediately and put on coats and ties, talked the language of commerce, organised thousands of delegations, hosted endless conferences and exhibitions, and laboured to convince foreign investors that China was pro-business, stable, and committed to reform and an open-door policy," suggests Dewoskin.
In contrast, India's corporate leaders agree that the country's politicians have never sold the country.
Much of the investment flowing into the country today is on the back of India's reputation as a place for skilled people who have proven themselves in the information technology services sector.
#5. Creation of zones and infrastructure for businesses
China has created many flexible investment zones, export processing zones, free trade zones, high tech zones, complete with tax incentives and good infrastructure.
India has tried to replicate this with its creation of export processing zones and software technology parks.
But the difference lies in some key areas like creation of infrastructure and quick approval of investment proposals.
#6. The business-above-all attitude
"China has had the good fortune of having Hong Kong and Taiwan outside its political control for decades or centuries but within China's ethnic and investment family," says Dewoskin.
"China always set aside political, social, and ideological differences in the interest of getting investment, technology, and export channels," he adds.
However, in India, trade and economic growth have never been paramount.
India's economic growth has always given in to the sentiments of the local industry; like in cases where foreign investments have been curbed or restricted.
#7. A passionate Diaspora
Much of the 60 million Chinese who live outside the country are economic forces to reckon with. But they also give back heavily to their country in terms of remittances and investments.
China has recognized the importance of its Diaspora and has worked to cultivate it. The Chinese has a special cabinet ministry to deal with the overseas Chinese matter.
Incentives are offered to Non-Resident Chinese to come to China and participate in various socio-economic activities of the Mainland. The current economic boom in southern China, for example, is largely due to the capital investments made by overseas Chinese entrepreneurs.
In the case of India, there has been a lack of consistency in government policy towards Non-Resident Indians.
India thus needs to harness the knowledge and capital of the Diaspora and develop plans on how NRIs can contribute to the country's economic growth.
#8. A strong manufacturing base
China has become the world's manufacturing hub.
The shelves of giant store chains like Wal-Mart are testimony to the fact that msot of the low-cost products today are made in China because it offers the cheapest source of manufacturing.
In electronics and hardware, China is the manufacturing hub for companies like Siemens and Hitachi Global Systems.
China's success in manufacturing has attracted companies from other sectors too. Michelin, the world's biggest car tyre manufacturer, plans to make its Chinese operations its biggest global manufacturing base.
The strong manufacturing base means that China is able to offer employment to a larger section of its population, compared to India which has shown growth predominantly in the services segment.
#9. Ability to respond quickly
"China is very fast and efficient in the redirection of resources into higher education, economics, management, computer science, electronic and biotech engineering, and law," suggests Dewoskin.
"It has a permissive and supportive policy to study abroad, coupled with an aggressive marketing and incentive programme to bring stronger graduates back," says Dewoskin.In contrast, India has yet to counter the problem of brain drain or promote itself as a destination for entrepreneurs who want to set up companies.
India has little hope of following China's path of development.
The main reason is that India did not achieve the same language and literacy as China, the agrarian revolution, the elimination of religious influence, and too much autonomy across regions.
1. Unify the language and literacy.There are so many languages and written languages in India that it is difficult for people from different regions to communicate, even within the same state.After decades of campaigning in simplified Chinese characters and Mandarin, ordinary Chinese workers have been able to communicate, get news and improve education. In my research on Japanese history, I was surprised to find that the literacy rate in Japan before the Meiji Restoration was already very high, which was a great help to the Meiji restoration.
2. Agrarian revolution.The agrarian revolution left China with virtually all land owned by the state and only rights to use it. It may not look good, but it helps the government to arrange and use the land properly. By offering compensation and evicting houses, the government can easily get the land it needs without getting bogged down in protracted negotiations.
3. Eliminate religious influence.China has established a non-theocratic society since the Duke of Zhou dynasty 3,000 years ago, and the religious forces in China are still unable to influence the government's major decisions.Nowadays Chinese people can do many things without being influenced by religious forces.India now suffers not only from inequality caused by the Hindu caste system, but also from Hinduism affecting democratic elections.
4. Too much autonomy everywhere.After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the provinces were no longer independent kingdoms.The central government can directly control the regions, just like a chess player can control the whole board, allowing the different regions to develop together. In India, where states run their own affairs, the central government has far less influence over the states than in China, which is a looser federation.This makes it very difficult to cooperate.
Jagabandhu Mishra former Indian Forest Service at Government of India (1985-2012)
India started with poverty, hunger, unemployment, communal conflict and major conflicts with Pakistan. The resource was limited for feeding such a large population. The thrust of the Government was to meet the day to day requirements , bare medicines and minimum food for its masses. But few industries were set up to meet the local needs of the country. Food production was given priority to become food surplus country. India started exporting food items for its oil need and military hard wares. But again there was China war and war with Pakistan. There were floods , cyclones , draught and communal riots. India suffered due to all these problems. But after 1990, reforms started in the economy under the leadership of Prime Minister P.V . Narasimha Rao. Indian economy started moving in the growth path. Now India is the sixth largest economy of the world.
But China started early with its reform process. China opened up its economy by 1970 and industrial activities started growing near major cities. New economic zones were developed and manufacturing activities started without any disturbance. The Government is stable and determined to move forward. So with all these efforts China is the second largest economy with strong growth rate. India is gripped by political manipulation and opportunism. Policy initiatives are not taken with consensus. Industrial developments are obstructed by various groups and sections. Unlimited litigation goes on to stop any industrial activities. Development is obstructed by vested interests in the name of farmers, dalits, minorities and many more sections.
The Communist Government helps China in its growth path. But the Indian Democracy was not helpful in pushing the Indian economy very fast . But India will grow faster very soon.
Rama Krishna CEO at Business Consulting (2016-present)
China is a totalitarian regime, if the CCP decides something then it gets implemented in no time. China, other than the autonomous regions is by and large uniform in terms of people, culture and race, thus people’s aspirations are similar and the CCP can decide and prioritize activities fairly easily.
India on the other hand is extremely chaotic with 29 different states which have varying languages, culture and people. The people’s aspirations are diverse thus deciding on activities and prioritizing work is very difficult. People are all held together by the constitution and a common minimum program that successive governments implement. India is also a democracy which means more debate and less development. The common minimum program is hardly able to cover items needed for a reasonably paced and progressive economy. Thus the slow pace in comparison to China. However despite these challenges it’s a miracle that the Indian economy is still growing :)
Reetesh Srivastava lives in Mumbai (2019-present)
China and India were almost at same level of GDP per capita in 1984. China liberalised and went for relatively open market economy 9–10 years earlier than India. Initially when India became a more open economy, India also grew at decent rates, but now India’s progress seems to be stalling (10 years back China was still growing much faster than India now and even then).
The reasons are twofold …
a) Indian government’s economic policies which are now reversing towards a closed economy and excessive government control over business and businessmen.
Chinese government on the other hand moved in a relatively targeted fashion to improve business competitiveness through policies, investment and scale. Indian government was not able to do that due to coalition politics and corruption earlier and incompetence at highest levels now.
b) Education, Health and population control : China has been able to target these 3 areas much more effectively than India. These are matters of political will and people’s (Voters) understanding of importance these areas, both of which are lacking and its a vicious circle.
Praveen Sharma Indian.
* China is still not a developed country
* China liberalised their economy two decades before India.
* China ranks 19th in World Bank's annual "Ease of Doing Business" surveys, while India stands around 186th position. No amount of “hard selling” Make in India is going to convince industries, unless we bring major reforms in labour and land laws. It’s nightmare to start a business in India, even after paying sufficient bribe.
* Chinese were able to realise how infrastructure is a economic multiplier,and invested heavily on it. India on the other hand, has really not paid attention to infrastructure as it deserves.
* Not much attention was paid in past to boost the productivity of semi-skilled and skilled labour.
* Major reforms are seldom undertaken because many of them are unpopular among masses, and therefore politicians resort to quick fixes. Chinese politicians don’t have to worry about winning elections.
Who said India is Not Successful. Indian Growth is More cyclical. Of course compared to the growth experienced by China, India is little behind following are the factors why Chinese economy was able to outperform Indian Economy.
* More than 1 Person Earning for the Family (Majority of Chinses Population are working compared to India we usually have 1 Head of the family taking care of Family of 4 or 6)
* Ease of Starting and Closing Factories (Its very easy to float a business in China and also very easy to exit the business)
* Fewer frauds and Loopholes due to Strict Laws (More Death Penalties than any other country in the world)
* Great Vision by the Government (20 to 50-year Planning) whereas Indian govt is usually known for short planning 5 years or less.
* Land and Resources - China has more port than India
* China was earlier chosen for cheaper labour of the world now its known for Mass production and economy of scale.
India in the next 20 years would be at par with Chinese economy however we need a long lasting growth planning.
Sounderrajan Balakrishnan lives in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
* China has many advantages over India.
* There is single party system in China, while in India, we have democracy, with multi party political system. Multi party means disunity in everything. Multiple forces acting in multiple directions in India. In China, Government is ruling with iron fist.
* Practically, there are no religions in China. All are Atheists. In India, we have multiple religions. Again, multiple religions means always misunderstanding , emotional disturbances and disunity among people in India. No such problem in China.
* Single child norm in China, while no population control in India.
I agree. Democracy was and is not a suitable political system for a country like India. Democracy requires an educated and mature population who are highly educated, enlightened and informed, with a very high level of awareness of their duties, responsilities and rights. like they have in the US,Western Europe,Japan,Australia etc. india by contrast has a population which is pre dominantly illiterate,poor and gullible which can be easily taken for a ride by unscrupulous politicians and leaders. Instead if we had opted for some kind of a benevolent dictatorship type of system soon after independence maybe we could have seen some difference today.
Vishal Sachdev I am an Indian born and raised in Panama
As we speak, India’s infrastructure is going through a major modernization program with reforms in taxation, FDI, ease of doing business, transportation, e-Governance, improved bilateral relations with many countries; but the most important change that made India develop faster was bridging the digital divide. Before cheap data connectivity, less than 17% of rural India had any access to the internet.
Mumin Ali Assistant Professor at Public Colleges and Universities (2014-present)
The reasons are:
* China has more land than India.
* China has a powerful dictatorship, while India is stuck with democracy which lacks powerful leaders.
* Chinese people are patriots, Indians are selfish and divided in regional conflicts.
* China has one language which unites them all, India does not have a national language.
* China eliminates spies from other nations, In India spies are ruling a few states.
* China is aggressive,. India is weak they lost part of Kashmir and Arunachal to Pakistan and China
Dr Shailendra Dwivedi
No,India was richest in ancient times and also well known country of resources but it was only looted since ancient time and then after freedom by past congress govt.Now since the 2014 it has been democratically governed by Narendra Modi who is honest and have nationalist inclination and also loved to say himself as a country servant.
Definitely the day come when we will gain our past glory.Just wait and Watch. Jai Hind
不，印度在古代是最富有的国家，也是众所周知的资源大国，但是它自古以来就被掠夺，然后在获得自由后又被国会政府掠夺。现在，自2014年以来，纳伦德拉 · 莫迪一直以民主的方式统治着这个国家。莫迪诚实，有民族主义倾向，还喜欢称自己为国家的公仆。
Wasu Koysiripong Travelled to over 40 countries in Asia Pacific and Europe
* India began the economic reform about 14 years later than China did.
* India lacks the good governance that China has, despite its universal suffrage.
* The Indians in general are less industrious, disciplined and materialistic than the Chinese.
However, it is worth noting that India has also been developing quite fast and it already excels in many technological fields. Though compared with China, India's success may not look as outstanding, but in comparison with many other developing countries,it is quite impressive.