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文章原始标题:Mach 30 wind tunnel to ‘put China decades’ ahead in hypersonic race

内容简介:一位中国物理学家表示,即将在北京揭幕的新风洞将让中国在高超音速技术方面领先世界几十年。 中国科学院研究员韩桂来在上周的一个在线讲座上说,位于北京怀柔区的JF-22风洞能够模拟高达每秒10公里的飞行速度

A Chinese physicist has said that a new wind tunnel in Beijing to be unveiled soon will put China decades ahead of the rest of the world in hypersonic technology.
Chinese Academy of Sciences researcher Han Guilai told an online lecture last week that the JF-22 wind tunnel, in Beijing’s Huairou district, was capable of simulating flights at up to 10km per second – 30 times the speed of sound. Together with an existing facility, also in Beijing, it would put China “about 20 to 30 years ahead” of the West.


Han, from China’s top hypersonic research agency the Institute of Mechanics, said the surface of an aeroplane travelling at such a speed could reach 10,000 degrees Celsius (18,032 Fahrenheit) – hot enough to break air molecules into atoms, even giving some of them an electric charge.
“This air is no longer the air we breathe in,” said Han. “The flying vehicle we study is like swimming in mud.”
Han said the power produced by the JF-22 wind tunnel would reach 15 gigawatts – nearly 70 per cent of the installed capacity of the world’s largest hydropower station Three Gorges Dam in China’s southwestern Sichuan province, or more than seven times the Hoover Dam in Nevada.


China, along with other major countries, has made huge investments in the development of hypersonic flight technology, which could make it possible for air travellers to land anywhere in the world in one or two hours. It would also cut the cost of space launches by more than 90 per cent, potentially bringing space travel within popular reach.
As China and the US compete for global technology leadership, the race to bring hypersonic flight to life has intensified.


Aerion, a private company developing hypersonic passenger aircraft based in Nevada, folded this month due to financial and technical hurdles. Last month, a much anticipated hypersonic weapon test by the US Air Force ended in failure.
Hypervelocity experiments started in the West in the late 1940s, and US pilot William John Knight briefly reached Mach 6.7 in a rocket-powered X-15 test plane in the 1960s. Despite their early start, Western countries so far lack a combat-ready hypersonic weapon, while none of their missile defence systems could intercept such high-speed objects from China or Russia.

高超音速实验开始于20世纪40年代后期的西方,美国飞行员威廉·约翰·奈特在20世纪60年代驾驶火箭动力的 X-15试验机,短暂达到了6.7马赫。尽管起步较早,但到目前为止,西方国家还没有一种可投入战斗的高超音速武器,导弹防御系统也无法拦截来自中国或俄罗斯如此高速的物体。

China has already deployed numerous types of hypersonic weapons in recent years, with the number of test flights conducted in one year equivalent to a decade of tests in the US.Chinese hypersonic test flights have recorded unusually high success rates, with no reported crashes.
Part of China’s success in hypersonics is because of the unique technology used in its wind tunnels. Unlike facilities in other countries – which use mechanical compressors to generate high-speed air flow – the JF-22 uses chemical explosions.


When the tunnel fires up, its fuel burns at a speed 100 million times faster than a gas stove, generating shock waves similar to those encountered by air planes at hypervelocity in high altitudes. According to Han, each plane or weapon model “needs to take about 10,000 tests in the tunnel” before production.
LENS II, the most advanced wind tunnel in the US, has simulated flights up to Mach 7, with the simulation lasting 30 milliseconds. In contrast, the JF-22’s average runtime could reach 130 milliseconds, with a much higher top speed, Han said.


Qian Xuesen, father of China’s rocket programme, coined the term “hypersonic” in a 1946 paper after he discovered that the behaviour of air flow followed completely different rules at five times faster than sound.
Qian “dug a big hole at the time, and now people from all over the world are jumping into the hole,” said Han, a fourth-generation researcher with the hypersonic research programme started by Qian 60 years ago.“There is a Chinese saying, it takes 10 years to sharpen a sword,” Han said. “We have spent 60 years sharpening two swords. And they are the best.”


Alenev 0.
China's advancement in weaponry is directly proportional to the amount of jealousy and frustration displayed here.


Ng C.
US first 30 Mach wind tunnel launched 12 years ago :)

美国第一个30马赫风洞在12年前启用 :)

Manish D.
Americans if you are so high and mighty. And China puny. Why do you even pay attention to the tech space and weapon development news from China . All you can cry we were hacked. While the truth is you won't have this technology for years or decades


Tofu Y.
Why do people always come here to say mean things about China?


Kevin Yimin L.
@Tofu Y. Because some people perceive China's rise as a threat to their dominance.


Andrew L.
Great news from China on their hypersonic adventures.  Keep up the great work.  Do not be bothered by any trash talk by Westerner especially the US of copying of technology.


Patrick N.
@Andrew L. Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me. China: add oil to your hypersonic weapons development!


Never knew Scmp attracted so many western (or maybe Indian? ) 'experts' on everything hypersonic. 😂😂😂. Bottom line is, China has hypersonic weapons and the the West does not. Fact!


Wantong L.
And according to Bill G's previous claims, the US has already equipped the Zumwalt destroyers with hypersonic missiles....🤣

根据 Bill·G 之前的说法,美国已经为朱姆沃尔特驱逐舰配备了高超音速导弹...

Panda X.
@Wantong L. LOL! Well, that is kind of hilarious indeed - especially when it is the most expensive floating lemon in the universe.


@Panda X. Well, when a country could fabricate the fake WMD talk, what can they not talk about?


Panda X.
@Kee suan T. Exactly. They aslo have fake hypersonics, it seems.


Alenev 0.
@Wantong L. China would be embarrased to call a 300Km/Hr train a "High Speed" train. In the US they routinely consider 250Km/Hr trains "High Speed"! And they also call AT&T 4.5G telecom, a "5G network"! LOL!! Wonder what they consider as "hypersonic missiles? Flying 3 seconds over Mach 5? LOL!!

如果把时速300公里的列车称为“高速”列车时,中国会感到尴尬。而美国,他们通常认为250公里/小时的列车是“高速”列车!他们还称 AT&T 的4.5G电信为“5G网络”!哈哈!!不知道他们认为什么是“高超音速导弹”?以5马赫的速度飞行3秒?哈哈! !

Raptor D.
@Wantong L. X-37... yep... a test module.  Its missions have been classified though and it is a test module after all!

LX-37... 是的... 一个测试舱。它的任务已经被列为机密,而且毕竟它是一个测试舱!

Wantong L.
@Raptor D. Lol... Hate to burst your illu.sion Rap, the Boeing X-37 is a testing reusable low orbit spacecraft, while the hypersonic missile is a weapon to attack enemy target or positions such as aircraft carrier. You are comparing apples to peppers. And it's not the USAF, but the US Space Force that is testing the TWO reentry vehicles. The US does Not field any Hypersonic missiles. China and Russia do.

哈哈... 恕我直言,波音X-37是一种测试中的可重复使用的低轨道航天器,而高超声速导弹是攻击敌人目标或阵地(如航空母舰)的武器。你是在拿苹果比作胡椒。测试这两种再入飞行器的不是美国空军,而是美国太空部队。美国没有部署任何高超音速导弹。中国和俄罗斯有。

Raptor D.
@Wantong L. China loses!


Wantong L.
@Raptor D. How?


@Raptor D. Another... Oh it's classified, oh it's being tested.. Etc etc from the expert. Hahaha

“专家”:另一个... 噢,这是机密,噢,还在测试中...等等。哈哈哈

Alenev 0.
@Raptor D. It's quite sad someone is tossing and turning in grape juice.


Robert S.
This comment section really shows you what Americans really are. Congratulations, China, from Ireland.


Raptor D.
Just a reminder that the USAF have been operating the X-37 since 2010.   This X-37 is also autonomous in most tasks. So, who's doing the catching up?


Panda X.
@Raptor D.  Yes yes yes. And your father is stronger than mine. I heard all of that when I was in kindergarten.


Yang Guizi T.
@Wantong L. You are correct, comrade. The US is currently in the process of outfitting the Stealth Zumwalt destroyers with hypersonic missiles, as well as continuing with the installation of the HELIOS directed energy weapons systems, which you of course know is already outfitted on three guided-missile detroyers and with immediate plans to install on another 5 such destroyers.

你说得对,同志。美国目前正在为朱姆沃尔特隐形驱逐舰配备高超音速导弹,同时继续安装 HELIOS 定向能武器系统,你当然知道,它已经装备在三艘导弹驱逐舰上了,并计划立即在另外五艘这样的驱逐舰上安装。

Wantong L.
@Yang guizi T. Yes. Count all those as "Has Equipped". That's should teach China and Russia.


Alenev 0.
@Raptor D. Why don't you build a Mach 30 hypersonic wind tunnel first before more bragging? LOL!!


Raptor D.
The Aeronautical Engineers in the west relies on CFD to simulate airflow over a surface or a whole structure.  CFD can also allow examing stresses in materials and structures.  This has saved plenty of money and time testing in wind tunnels.  Verfication on design requires test flight which is compared to modelling and CFD data.  IF China has AI and Supercomputers, surely this wind tunnel is redundant. A tiny scale model going through MACH 30 is different to a real scale model at the same wind speed.  The flaw here is wind speed is not to scale.  It seems cannot apply the "todays" technologies.  Hypersonic travel were experimented by the US way back in the 60s with real flight time.


Edwina L.
@Raptor D. Raptor, you should read the article thoroughly before making your extensive claims about CFD.

在说大量关于 CFD 的话之前,你应该仔细阅读这篇文章。

Raptor D.
@Edwina L. I understand the article well.  We the  Americans use a compressor type to simulate airflow as a variable is known and what energy is expected and repeated upon its release.  Exposing metal model to extreme pressures also induces friction and will change the object's shape from temperature induced expansions.  Hence, the burst is limited and will give enough sampling time to check the shockwaves at the leading edges and through the structures.  China's explosive nature to create speed introduces a "heat" element in the air chamber and combustion/explosive fuel is not guaranteed to be consistent during testing.  Hence, CFD are used in many engineering challenges.  CFD is fairly accurate and changes can be made to ensure optimum outcomes are reached.   Real life testing beats simulation any day!!!  So... why is China not using its AI and supercomputers if they are leading that area?

我明白这篇文章。我们美国人使用压缩机型式来模拟气流,因为变量是已知的,什么能量是设定好的,重复运行。将金属模型暴露在极端压力下也会引起摩擦,并且由于温度引起的膨胀会改变物体的形状。所以,爆发是可控的,并提供足够的采样时间,以检查冲击波穿过的前缘和结构。中国创造的爆发速度是在气室中引入了一个“加热”元件,不能保证燃烧/爆炸性燃料在测试过程中一致。所以,CFD 应用于许多工程挑战。CFD 是相当准确的,可以进行更改以确保达到最佳结果。现实生活中的测试,在任何时候都比模拟好!!那么... 如果在人工智能和超级计算机方面领先,为什么中国不使用它们呢?

Deer L.
@Raptor D. Computer modelling and stimulation are only possible if scientists know well about the physics behind the air dynamics at high speed. However, at such a high speed of 30 Machs, the air dynamics and physics are completely different. Not until these have been well studied and known, computer modelling would not be an option.


William G.
"Chinese Academy of Sciences researcher Han Guilai told an online lecture last week that the JF-22 wind tunnel, in Beijing’s Huairou district, was capable of simulating flights at up to 10km per second – 30 times the speed of sound. Together with an existing facility, also in Beijing, it would put China “about 20 to 30 years ahead” of the West." That's a totally absurb statement because being able to simulate a high speed flight is just a small part of the whole problem. The hardest problem for hypersonic flights is the high temperature that turns the missile into a uncontrollable, uncommunicative melting blob, ie useless.


Uz87vjk K.
@William G. So you're an expert in aerodynamics and metal properties?


William G.
@Uz87vjk K. Hard for you to accept but that's common knowledege for scientists and engineers in the US.


@William G. You really ought to read the entire article. One of the main reasons China is way ahead of the US in this regard is precisely what you wrote. It is also a reason why China (and Russia) have hypersonic weapons today in service and the US does not. 😂


Benjamin E.
@William G. Since you know so much aerodynamics , tell me what would change if Stokes law is used to calculate drag where turbulent flow is present.


William G.
@Benjamin E. Dont deflect, just dispute what I said


Panda X.
@William G. If it is useless, why are you commenting? People said the same thing about China's space station and its version of GPS only a few years ago, and both are superior than anything the US has. What's more, they're right above your head.


Benjamin E.
@William G. This question could be answered by anyone without background knowledge after 25min preparation. I'm testing your knowledge since you claim to know better.


Robert C.
@William G. "Simulate."
Computers can already do this and have done so for years.


Yang Guizi T.
@Panda X. BeiDou is a two-way communication system, which is different from the other three GNSSs. This characteristic is useful for fishing boats, buses, field staff and rescuers that wish to send messages and inform of their locations. People trapped in a mountain without a cellphone signal can send a message of up to 1,200 Chinese characters to a BeiDou satellite to get rescued. In comparison, GPS, GLONASS and Galileo only send signals from satellites to receivers and thereby have no idea of who and where the receivers are.


Luc V.
@William G. I have no knowledge about aero-dynamics but I can recognize a very frustrated person in you. Your believe in American supremacy will kill you.


@William G. And you always use personal attacks and deflections when you are exposed.


Kkdira F.
@William G. that what west said, by the way chinese IQ is higher that west, so the chinese is not going to waste money if its not worth it. remember the ghost cities? sadly its filling up now, hurting the west feeling


Luc V.
What a jealousy in these posts.


Panda X.
@Luc V. Indeed, which only proves China's giant steps.


David L.
What is the big deal with this aricle?  China has yet to develop a reliable jet engine.  The secret sauce is in the fundamental physics, metallurgy, and process techniques.  


Howcan 2.
@David L. So there is really nothing to worry. That's what Trump said about c19 and that likely cost him his seat. Anyway, don't understand why the Chinese need to show this off. Probably there is more than meets the eye.


Mike J.
The world's most powerful wind tunnel at present is  LENS-X facility in Buffalo, NY,USA...  which operates at speeds of up to 10 kilometres per second – 30 times the speed of sound... and has been doing so for over ten years

目前世界上最强大的风洞是LENS-X设施,位于美国纽约州水牛城... 它的运行速度高达每秒10公里,是音速的30倍... 已经运行十多年了。

PercyKim L.
@Mike J. Guess you missed reading the whole article, maybe you should get a subscr1iption:  "LENS II, the most advanced wind tunnel in the US, has simulated flights up to Mach 7, with the simulation lasting 30 milliseconds. In contrast, the JF-22’s average runtime could reach 130 milliseconds, with a much higher top speed, Han said."


David W.
@William G. If anything, assuming the hype is indeed hype then its possible Chinese institutions are subject to the same need to dress up expensive science projects to justify their existence and budget allocarion that plague various US defense and research instituitons. Seeing as how the statement came from the head of hypersonic research, this seems more probable. The article references travel, and if that were the ultimate aim of discovery then maybe itd be interesting but hypersonic transport seems pretty impractical, not to mention uncomfortable. As a science project, sure why not, if it leads to other discoveries in materials science or something else under extreme conditons that's good enough.


Liqiang L.
China is good at doing "Big" things but poor at "Small" things. Small I mean nano meters small not visiable to naked eyes. How China can catch-up to make sub 12nm semiconductor IC chips without US technologies would be the key to everything.


Sunny S.
@Liqiang L. Well china is already in the race just look at it's province Taiwan.


Luc V.
@Liqiang L. US could not do it either without the help of Europe.


Joanne S.
@Liqiang L. Why tho. We don't need it for our war planes

为什么? 我们的战斗机不需要这个。

Howcan 2.
@Liqiang L. Necessity is the mother of invention. The US did all it could to make sure China never make it to space but she did. All China needs is the catalyst and in this instance, the sudden deprivation of supplies. Always wonder why the US need to wake up a giant who will compete directly with it in time. Maybe, the thinkers there need to think out of the box sometimes.


Kkdira F.
@Liqiang L. usa best bet intel failed


Abraham Y.
It is sad that we spend so much of our time and energy to destroy each other. Nobody should dominate in this world, we should live in peace.


Kkdira F.
@Abraham Y. living in peace mean no more free oils through bombing


China and Russia are both well ahead in hypersonics already.  Look at the physics achievements in international competition or in PISA scores both gives and indication of why. 
But in terms of energy production the report didn't seem to report much.


William G.
@Skar**@****** China and Russia and India all made the claim.


Didi M.
@William G. And USA admitted they are behind in the hypersonic race. Better go dig some old news


Kkdira F.
@William G. sorry indian in usa allies, only indian brag usa also brag , after china and russia deployed their weapon then usa scramble to catchup , and brag they are the first inventor, aka like say they are first to dream (made nothing)


William G.
China just discovered the miraculous wind tunnel:) Plane and missile works all require wind tunnels, the US has been doing that for a hundred year. The old UGM-133 Trident II missiles fly at Mach 24 on entrance, how would you get that done without wind tunnels?

中国刚刚发明了奇迹般的风洞 :) 飞机和导弹工程都需要风洞,美国已经这样做了一百年了。老式的UGM-133三叉戟II导弹在入口处能以24马赫的速度飞行,如果没有风洞,你怎么能做到?

Frederick T.
@William G. feeling so sensitive and defensive...


Wantong L.
@William G. I don't think you know what a mach 30 wind tunnel is


Joe M.
The best weapons are those not mentioned in the media. There are things beyond your imagination that would make this obsolete. It is nothing more than a propaganda piece. Btw jet propulsion will be replaced by anti-gravity. When they decide it's time


@Joe M. Sure - that's why the US is trying to hard to do the same thing.


Frederick T.
@Joe M. that's why Biden is spending $6T just to catch up...


Joe M.
@Skar**@****** You obviously never study the first cold war.


Joe M.
@Frederick T. 6T to catch up to what again?


Howcan 2.
@Joe M. Then there is nothing to worry. What would be the intention then?


@Joe M. Yeah and the US now - like the Soviets before spends a higher proportion of gdp on military spending


Joe M.
@Skar**@****** And where do you see media articles talking about the black projects? Exactly. The U.S. doesn't post these things because it's a dumb strategic move to let your enemy know your capability. While China dumps money into this thing, the U.S. is working on an alternative propulsion system. China should focus on its semiconductor industry that can have an actual impact.


Alenev 0.
One thing is for sure, China did not build a Mach 30 wind tunnel to test Mach 5 hypersonic missiles.


Alenev 0.
With the construstion of the JE-22 wind tunnel, the next generation of China's hypersonic missiles which will be more lethal is not far to follow. Pretty sad, the US doesn't yet know how to get its first generation hypersonic missiles to work.


Arthur G.
@Alenev 0. Doesn't china still buy jet engines from other countries? I wouldn't believe any things from USA or China without concrete proof. Decades ahead is a joke.


Alenev 0.
If the US is going to make a mistake de fedning the island of Taiwan against onslaught of Chinese, it better be sure how to survive China's DF-21D carrier Killers and DF-17 Hypersonic glider missiles.


Ren C.
Waiting for the US announcement of sanctions on Hypersonic technology research being done by China. Eagerly waiting, come on USA.


@Ren C. All homegrown so too bad.  Just like space.  And most likely - soon semiconductors.


Los R.
Impressed indeed!


Alenev 0.
China had the world's only hypersonic wind tunnel 5 year ago. The DF17 was tested using that wind tunnel. This new one is an upgrade to replace the old wind tunnel for even faster speed. The US ran three hypersonic tests in the last 5 year and all failed. Without the right wind tunnel, development of hypersonic missiles would be very difficult and error prone.


William G.
The US has the most advanced aerospace industry in the world but it doesn't know how to build a wind tunnel?


Joe M.
China is still buying jet engines from Russia. They can design technology but can't make it operational.


Chweehua L.
@Joe M. Another sour grapes


@William G. China has supersonic jet engines... IT's issue is getting them to last longer before needing to rebuild.  Complete different issue and shows you don't know what you are saying.

中国有超音速喷气发动机... 问题是如何让它们在需要修复之前,使用更长的时间。完全不同的问题,这表明了你不懂你说的东西。

@Joe M. China stopped buying jet engines from Russia... You are factually incorrect.

中国已经没有从俄罗斯购买喷气发动机了... 你从事实上就错了。

Alenev 0.
@William G. It's like saying Boeing can build jumbo jets, you mean it can't build 350Km/Hr Highspeed railway? The answer is: NO! It can't.

这就像说波音公司可以制造巨型喷气式飞机,你的意思是,它不能建造每小时350公里的高速铁路?答案是: 不能!做不到。

Alenev 0.
The US built its first jet engines in 1942. China had its own WS-10 engine in 2010. You have 68 year lead time over China. Nothing to brag about! China is on track to put its WS-15 jet engine into production in 2022 which is comparable to the US's most powerful jet engine GE90-115B.


Alenev 0.
@William G. No matter what kind arospace industry the US has, the fact is the US can not make a decent hypersonic glider missile. The US is falling further behind Russia and China in Hypersonic weapons.


@Alenev 0. what about Russia?  they are up there with China in hypersonics


Percival P.
@Alenev O. "China is on track to put its WS-15 jet engine into production in 2022 which is comparable to the US's most powerful jet engine GE90-115B."  The two engines are not comparable.  They were designed for different applications and they have very different performance specs.  That's not to say that one is better than the other, they're just different.


Edwin P.
This is great news, although the Americans will still claim thst it was stolen from them, although they do not have it.


Brett B.
I am an American and I think this technology is amazing. I don't care if it Chinese or American - it doesn't always have to be a competition. China obviously does many things first in class, as does the U.S.  It would be great if we could just celebrate the technology that drives us all forward.


@Brett B. Unfortunately the Democrats and Republicans knew that the only way to win an election is to continue bashing China. Throwing whatever pots and pans they can get hold of. US will eventually implode because those politicians are not working for the people. A fractured society perpetrate by gun violent, out of control drug abuse, high disparity in wealth distribution etc. Some day the UN will decide that it's too dangerous for US to continue having 6000 nuclear warheads in it's inventory.


Alenev 0.
@William G. You have no appreciation of how difficult the hypersonic wind tunnel is. It has nothing to do with "Arospace". It needs to generate shockwaves using sustained and controlled high power explosions. It is more about energy accumulation, targeting, release and smoothing of energy spikes, the technology of which China has pretty much conquered. That is why the US is at least 20-30 years behind.